Syllabus: GS Paper-3-Environment & Ecology

Why in News?

· Weeks after the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change announced the rules for its Green Credit Programme, 10 states have identified parcels of degraded forest land.

· Chhattisgarh and MP alone accounts for up to 40% of the forest land made available.

Green Credit:

· It refers to a unit of incentive that is provided to individuals and entities that engaged in activities which deliver a positive impact on the environment.

Green Credit Programme:

· It was launched on the side-lines of COP 28 that was held in 2023 in Dubai.

· It is an initiative of Lifestyle for Environment Movement (LiFE)

o LiFE was introduced at COP 26 Glasgow in 2021 to drive an international mass movement towards ‘mindful and deliberate utilisation’ to protect the environment.

· It introduces a market-based approach to incentivise 8 identified environmental activities.

· Its main objective is to establish a mechanism where participants can earn incentives in the form of Green Credits.

· It is implemented in phases which includes:

o Water Management

o Afforestation

o Sustainable agriculture

o Waste Management

o Air Pollution Reduction

o Mangrove conservation and restoration

o Eco mark label development and

o Sustainable building and infrastructure

Green Credit Rules, 2023:

· These rules were notified under the Environment Protection Act, 1986.

· These rules were notified to encourage voluntary environmental positive actions resulting in issuance of green credits.

· Under these rules, voluntary tree plantation is envisaged on degraded land, waste land, watershed area etc. under the control and management of Forest Departments.

Implementation of the GCP:

· Under this, Registered and approved entities can pay to finance afforestation projects in specific tracts of degraded forest and wasteland.

· The actual afforestation is carried out by the State Forest Department.

· After two years of planting and following an evaluation by the International Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), each planted tree could be worth one ‘green credit’.

· These green credits can be used then by the companies that have diverted forest land for non-forest purposes and razed thousands of trees to offset some of their obligations under India’s compensatory afforestation laws.

Source: TH

Katchatheevu Island

Syllabus: GS Paper-1-Geography

Why in News?

Prime Minister of India has blamed the opposition for callously giving away Katchatheevu Island to Sri Lanka.

Katchatheevu Island:

· It is an uninhabited off-shore island present in the Palk Strait.

· It was originally owned by the king of Ramnad.

· Ramnad is present day Ramanathapuram in Tamil Nadu.

· Later it was jointly administered by India and Sri Lanka during the British rule.

· It was used by the fisherman to dry their nets.

· Sri Lanka claimed the territorial ownership over the islet in the early 20th century.

· So, in the year 1974 India ceded the island to the Sri Lanka through a joint agreement.

· After two years, India gave up its fishing rights in the region.

· Through an exchange of letters, both India and Sri Lanka agreed to stop fishing in each other’s water in the year 1976.

· These two countries signed the treaties to demarcate the International Maritime Boundary Line.

· But these treaties could not stop the fisherman from fishing.

· It is because they don’t know the boundaries.

· They continued their fishing in the Palk Bay until the Eelam war broke out in the year 1983.

· After the end of the war in 2009, the Sri Lankan fishermen are raising their objections to the Indian fishermen fishing in their waters.

· This islet has fallen on the other side of IMBL.

· The Fisherman of India often risk their lives and cross the IMBL for fishing.

· The Sri Lankan Navy is on high alert and they arrest them or even destroy their fishing nets and vessels.

Stand of the various stakeholder on the issue:

Tamil Nadu’s State:

· In the year 1973, the then Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu had urged the Centre to retain Katchatheevu by stating it belonged to India and not just Tamil Nadu.

· The issue was resurfaced when the then Chief Minister called for its retrieval later modifying her demand to a perpetual lease of the Island with both Chief Minister and Leader of Opposition approaching the Supreme Court in 1991.

Union Government’s Stand:

· In 2013, the Union government had informed the Supreme Court that the issue of reclaiming the Katchatheevu from Sri Lanka was irrelevant because no Indian territory was relinquished, citing historical disputes settled by agreements in 1974 and 1976.

· In 2022, The Union Government while referring to the two agreements pointed out in its reply in the Rajya Sabha that Katchatheevu “lies on the Sri Lankan side of the India-Sri Lanka International Maritime Boundary Line”.

Other maritime disputes with neighbouring nations:

· Pakistan-Demarcation boundary along Sir Creek

· Bangladesh-New Moore Island in Bay of Bengal.

Source: IT

Washington Treaty

Syllabus: GS Paper-2-Important Organisations

Why in News?

Recently, NATO Foreign Ministers has gathered at NATO Headquarters to mark 75 years since signing of the Washington Treaty.

Washington Treaty:

· It is also known as North Atlantic Treaty.

· It forms the basis of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

· It was signed on 4th April, by 12 founding members

· It derives its authority from Article 51 of the United Nations Charter which reaffirms the inherent right of independent states to individual or collective defence.

· Collective defence is at the heart of the treaty which is enshrined in Article 5.

· It commits members to protect each other and sets a spirit of solidarity within the grouping countries.

· It contains only 14 articles and provides for in-built flexibility on all fronts.

· Despite the changing security environment, the original treaty should never be modified and also each ally has the possibility to implement the text in accordance with its capabilities and circumstances.


· It stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

· It was formed in 1949 by signing the Washington Treaty

· At present NATO has 32 countries from North America and Europe.

· Its main goal is to safeguard the Allies’ freedom and security by political and military means.

· Headquarters is located in Brussels, Belgium

· Headquarters of Allied Command Operations is located in Mons, Belgium.

Member States:

· The members of NATO are:

· Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Montenegro, Netherlands, North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States.


Political Objectives:

· It promotes democratic values and enables members to consult and cooperate on defence and security related-issues to solve problems and prevent conflict.

Military Objectives:

· It is committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes.

· If any diplomatic efforts fail, then it has the military power to undertake crisis management.

· Its protection does not extend to members’ civil wars or internal coups.


· It is funded by its members.

· The U.S. contributes about three-fourths of NATO’s budget.

Source: NATO


Tholu Bommalata

Syllabus: GS Paper-1-Art & Culture

Why in News?

Recently Sangeet Natak Akademi has undertaken the revival of Tholu Bommalata.

Tholu Bommalata:

· It is also known as “Bommalattam” or “Tolpava Koothu”.

· It is shadow puppetry art form which was originated at Godavari region in Andhra Pradesh around 3rd Century BCE.

· They are made of translucent, coloured leather and are projected onto a small screen, like colour photographic transparencies.

· The puppeteer manipulates the puppets from behind with two sticks.

· The puppets tell the mythological and folk tales from the epics through a blend of music, dance and vibrant visuals.

· The puppets generally depict animals, birds, gods and demons.

· Tholu Bommalata has received the Geographical Indication tag in 2008.

· It was recognised by the Government of Indi as a part of its One District One Product Initiative.

Source: IE

Paira Cropping System

Syllabus: Prelims-Agriculture

Why in News?

Recently Odisha is promoting climate-resilient agriculture through its rice fallow initiative using paira cropping system.

Paira Cropping System:

· It is a traditional agriculture practice primarily observed in coastal areas, notably in states like Odisha.

· In this practice, seeds of crops such as lentil, lathyrus, urd bean or mung bean are broadcast in the standing crop of rice approximately 2 weeks before.

· This practice requires minimal intervention and cost as it utilises the existing infrastructure of paddy fields and relies on natural moisture.

· It mitigates soil degradation and optimises fertiliser application by contributing to sustainable agriculture practices.

· This practice is significant in Odisha’s agricultural landscape, contributing to crop diversification and enhancing the farm income.

Source: DTE


Syllabus: Prelims-Science & Technology

Why in News?

Recently scientists have proposed a model to explain Arrkoth’s ice core


· In the Kuiper Belt, the region of the solar system outside of Neptune, there are hundreds of "icy worlds."

· In the Powhatan tribe's language Arrokoth means "sky."

· As far as human spacecraft have travelled, this is the furthest object in space they have visited.

· With the aid of the Hubble Space Telescope, it was found in 2014.
It has two lobes and has a snowman-like appearance.

· It is hypothesized that it contains "gaseous ice" that dates back billions of years, preserved deep within the item.

Kuiper Belt:

· Known by another name, the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt, it is a flat ring made up of tiny icy planets that orbit the Sun past Neptune's orbit.

· It bears the name of the Dutch-American astronomer Gerard Kuiper, who postulated the existence of this region in the 1950s.

· This band contains millions of these ice objects, generally known as trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) or Kuiper band objects (KBOs).

· Composition: Comets, asteroids, and dwarf planets are among the small icy things that make up the Kuiper Belt.

Source: Space


1. Consider the following statements regarding Green Credit Programme:

1. It was launched on the side-lines of COP 27

2. Green Credit refers to a unit of incentive that is provided to individuals and entities that engaged in activities which deliver a positive impact on the environment.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a. Only 1

b. Only 2

c. Both 1&2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

2. Consider the following statements regarding Katchatheevu Islands:

Statement-I: It is an uninhabited off-shore island present in the Palk Strait

Statement-II: In the year 1978 India ceded the island to the Sri Lanka through a joint agreement.

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

a. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I

b. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I

c. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect

d. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct



UPSC Infinity
Launch your GraphyLaunch your Graphy
100K+ creators trust Graphy to teach online
LTXCLASSES 2024 Privacy policy Terms of use Contact us Refund policy