AFFAIRS -10th April 2024

Centre-State Relations

Syllabus: GS Paper-2-Polity

Why in News?

The Supreme Court said that several states are coming to court against centre which indicates the deterioration of relations between the states and centre.

Constitutional Provisions:

Legislative Relation:

· Article 245 to 255 in Part XI of the Indian Constitutions deal with the legislative relations between the Centre and the States.

· Indian constitution also provides for a division of the subjects between centre and the states through three lists in the Seventh Schedule. They are:

o List-I (Union)

o List-II (State)

o List-III (Concurrent)

· In abnormal times, the scheme of distribution may be either modified or suspended.

Administrative Relations:

· Articles 256 to 263 deal with the administrative relations between the Centre and the states.

Financial Relations:

· Article 268 to 293 in Part XII of the Constitution deal with the Centre-State Financial relations.

· As India is a federal country, it adheres to the division of powers when comes to taxation and also it is the responsibility of the Centre to allocate funds to the states.

· Schedule VII deals with the ability of the Centre and states to levy taxes.

o Goods and Services Tax is a recent example of a financial centre-state relationship.

Issues of Centre-State Relations:

· Since 1991, Economic reforms has led to the relaxation of many controls on investments, giving some room to States, but the autonomy regarding public expenditure policies is not absolute because State governments depend on the Centre for their revenue receipts.

· Most of the states have pushed back as a result of which the give and take equation between the Centre and the States has given way to a more hardened stand by both, leaving little room to negotiate.

· The increasingly fractious Centre-State ties have resulted in the deterioration of Cooperative Federalism.

Complexities of Contemporary Disputes:

· The powers of central agencies, the operation of regulatory bodies, and the standardization of social sector programs are among the points of debate.

· The majority of policy in these areas should ideally be left to the discretion of the States, with a central authority at the top managing the distribution of resources.

· Nonetheless, the supreme authorities have frequently made an effort to strengthen their position and pressure States to move in a way that benefits the Center.

Source: TH

Article 14 & 21

Syllabus: GS Paper-2-Polity

Why in News?

· Supreme Court has said that Right against climate change is linked to Article 14 and Article 21.

· It said that Right to life and equality could not be fully realised without a clean, stable environment.

Article 14 (Equality Before Law):

· It says that no person shall be denied treatment of equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.

· It is extended to all persons whether citizens or foreigners, statutory corporation, companies, registered societies or any other type of legal person.


· Under Article 361, the President of India or Governor of states is not answerable to any court for the exercise of their powers/duties and no civil or criminal proceedings can occur or continue against them in any court during their term of office.

· Under Article 361-A, no civil or court proceedings can occur for a person for publishing any substantially true report of either House of the Parliament and State Legislature.

· No member of Parliament and State Legislature is liable to any court proceedings in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in Parliament or any committee.

· The foreign rulers, ambassadors and diplomats enjoy immunity from criminal and civil proceedings.

Article 21 (Protection of Life and Personal Liberty):

· It declares that no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.

· It is available to both citizens and non-citizens.

· It is not merely confined to animal existence or survival but also includes the right to live with human dignity and all those aspects of life which go to make a man’s life meaningful, complete and worth living.

· Some of the rights convers under Article 21:

o Right to privacy

o Right to go abroad

o Right to shelter

o Right against solitary confinement

o Right to social justice and economic empowerment

o Right against handcuffing

o Right against custodial death

o Right against delayed execution

o Doctors’ assistance

o Right against public hanging

o Protection of cultural heritage

o Right to pollution-free water and air

o Right of every child to a full development

o Right to health and medical aid

o Right to education

o Protection of under-trials

Climate Change:

· It refers to long-term shifts in temperature, precipitation patterns, wind patterns, and other aspects of the Earth’s climate system.

· It poses challenges to natural ecosystems and human societies, necessitating urgent action.

· It is mainly caused by human activities, including the emission of Greenhouse Gases and deforestation.

Source: TH

Solar Eclipse

Syllabus: GS Paper-1-Geography

Why in News?

Animals remained quiet during the Solar Eclipse in U.S.

Solar Eclipse:

· It happens when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, casting a shadow on Earth that either fully or partially blocks the Sun’s light in some areas.

Types of Solar Eclipse:

Total Solar Eclipse:

· It occurs when the New Moon comes between the Sun and Earth and casts the darkest part of its shadow, the umbra, on Earth.

· A full solar eclipse, known as totality, is almost as dark as night.

· During this eclipse of the Sun, the Moon covers the entire disk of the Sun.

· When the Moon completely covers the disk of the Sun, only the corona of the Sun is visible.

· It is called Total eclipse because at the maximum point of the eclipse, the sky goes dark and temperature can fall.

Annular Solar Eclipse:

· An annular solar eclipse happens when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, but when it is at or near its farthest point from Earth.

· Because the Moon is farther away from Earth, it appears smaller than the Sun and does not completely cover the Sun.

· As a result, the Moon appears as a dark disk on top of a larger, bright disk, creating what looks like a ring around the Moon.

Partial Solar Eclipse:

· A partial solar eclipse happens when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth but the Sun, Moon, and Earth are not perfectly lined up.

· Only a part of the Sun will appear to be covered, giving it a crescent shape. During a total or annular solar eclipse, people outside the area covered by the Moon’s inner shadow see a partial solar eclipse.

Hybrid Solar Eclipse:

· Because Earth's surface is curved, sometimes an eclipse can shift between annular and total as the Moon’s shadow moves across the globe.

· This is called a hybrid solar eclipse

Source: HT


Changpa Tribe

Syllabus: Prelims-Important Tribes

Why in News?

Recently, a climate activist decided to cancel the Pashmina border march that aimed to draw attention to the challenges faced by the Changpa nomadic tribe.

Changpa Tribe:

· They are known by the name Champa who are a semi-nomadic Tibetan tribe.

· They mostly live in the Changtang plateau of southeastern Ladakh and also some parts of Jammu and Kashmir.

· They are pastoralists who live at an average altitude of 4,500 meters above sea level.

· Their primary means of livelihood is raising animals and selling their produce

· They are identified by their conical yak-skin tents called reboo.

· They share both cultural and linguistic familiarities with Tibetans.

· All Changpa families profess Tibetan Buddhism.

Source: TH

Sounding Rockets

Syllabus: Prelims-Science & Technology

Why in News?

Recently, the Jawaharlal Nehru Planetarium located in Bengaluru launched a new sky theatre show title “Indian Odyssey: Sounding Rockets to Gaganyaan” now open to the public.

Sounding Rockets:

· They are solid propellant rockets which are used to study the upper atmosphere, test new components and perform space research.

· They used to launch instruments from 48 to 145 kilometers above the Earth’s surface.

· It performs an observation mission during its flight before impact and then dives into the sea along with its observation instruments.

· ISRO has been launching these rockets since 1965.

· RH-200 has a payload capacity of 10 kilograms and reaches an altitude of 80 km is used for meteorological purposes.

· RH-300-Mk-II has a payload capacity of 60 kilograms and reaches an altitude of 160 kilometers which is suitable for aeronomy research purposes.

· Rohini is a series of sounding rockets which is designed to carry payloads weighing between 2 to 200 kilograms to altitude ranging from 100 to 500 kilometers.

Source: IT

Satpula Dam

Syllabus: Prelims-Important Dams

Why in News?

Satpula Dam which is the Delhi’s oldest surviving dam still stands strong.

Satpula Dam:

· It was constructed during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Shah Tughlaq.

· It was constructed in the 14th Century.

· It was developed as an integral part of the defence wall of the fourth city of Delhi.

· It served for two purposes. They are:

o For providing a reliable source of water for irrigation

o Acting as a defence against possible intruders.

· It was developed by identifying appropriate topography which indicates a large open plain where water can be stored for irrigating large flat lands.

· So, this structure with sluice gates and a reservoir was developed.

· Sufi Saint Nasiruddin Mahmud used to live nearby, so, people used to believe that the canal water had healing properties.

Source: IE


1. Consider the following statements regarding Article 14:

1. It is applicable to only Indian Citizens

2. The foreign rulers, ambassadors and diplomats enjoy immunity from criminal and civil proceedings.

Which of the above statements are correct?

a. Only 1

b. Only 2

c. Both 1&2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

2. Consider the following statements regarding Solar Eclipse:

Statement-I: In Annular Solar eclipse, the moon appears smaller than the Sun and does not completely cover the Sun.

Statement-II: In Total Solar Eclipse, only a part of the Sun will appear to be covered, giving it a crescent shape

Which one of the following is correct in respect of the above statements?

a. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is the correct explanation for Statement-I

b. Both Statement-I and Statement-II are correct and Statement-II is not the correct explanation for Statement-I

c. Statement-I is correct but Statement II is incorrect

d. Statement-I is incorrect but Statement II is correct


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